you can check any sensor without damaging it.
You can check the resistance on the sensor by unplugging it, TPS, for example, hook a meter up, turn the throttle from idle to wide open, and resistance should change slowly and steady, without jumping around all crazy.
turnign the key on, the wiring harness going to the sensor should be putting out 5 volts, maybe 12. depends on the application.
then you can plug the wiring harness back into the sensor, take a meter, (carefully) and tap into the wires, and turn the key on, should be getting voltage, and turn the throttle, and voltage should change, one way or the other, slowly and steady, bit by bit, without jumping around.
Only exclude is the oxygen sensors, as the oxgygen passing over the sensor generates voltage, those need to be tested with great care.
Some sensors you can do outside the car, like with a temp sensor, use a LIGHTER, not an acetylene torch) to change the heat, and should read difference resistance, or if connected to the computer, change the voltage.... etc etc.
but do it if your familiar with digital meter work. And you can damage the meter if done wrong (testing resistance on the circuit if voltage is present).